Egypt lost all of it’s chariots at the time of the Exodus. Any chariot found (other than in the Red Sea) would have been produced after the Exodus.

Egypt’s chariots were all destroyed at the time of the Exodus.

Only Chariots produced after the Exodus would be found by archaeologists.

No discoveries horse drawn chariots have been found prior to the 15th dynasty. This would tend to suggest that the Exodus took place before the 15th dynasty. One would not expect to find chariots of dynasties prior to the Exodus because they were all destroyed at the time of the Exodus.
Wyatt found chariot wheels covered with coral strewn across the bottom of the Red Sea. There was a well preserved golden 4 spoked chariot wheel. He also found six and eight spoked chariot wheels covered with coral from one side of the Red Sea to the other in the Gulf of Aqaba where there is a large beach and a natural land bridge at the opening of the Wadi Wadir, just a little bit north of Jabel Lawz on the opposite side. Wyatt also found a pair of columns which appeared to have been left by Solomon to mark the site of the Red Sea crossing at this point.
Unfortunately, as no examples of 12th dynasty chariots have been found, the chariot wheels found by Wyatt were dated to the 18th dynasty. This has lead many an archaeologist to go looking for the Exodus in the 18th dynasty. There is no evidence for a mass Exodus in the 18th dynasty. There was an exodus at the end of the second intermediate period but this is when the Hyksos kings were evicted from Egypt and is clearly not the Israelite exodus.
The Bible states that the exodus pharaoh pursued the Israelites with all of Egypt’s chariots and that these were lost in the Red Sea. One would, therefore, not expect to find a chariot that predated the exodus. If a chariot has been found, other than in the Red Sea, then it must have been produced after the Exodus.
While the Hyksos (15th dynasty) did use chariots to invade and occupy lower Egypt, they were only able to do this because the Egyptian army had been decimated by the Exodus and all of it’s chariots were at the bottom of the Red Sea.
Many historians and archaeologists believe that the horse drawn chariot was introduced to Egypt by the Hyksos because there are no findings of 12th and 13th dynasty chariots. If all of Egypt’s chariots were lost at the time of the exodus, the finding of 15th dynasty chariots should suggest that the Exodus occurred prior to the 15th dynasty, namely the 13th dynasty. It also follows that the chariot wheels found in the Red Sea by Wyatt were from the 12th and 13th dynasties.

The Hyksos were credited with having introduced the chariot to Egypt only because no 12th and 13th dynasty chariots have been found.   The fact that Hyksos chariots are the earliest surviving chariots to have been found means that the exodus took place immediately before the Hyksos entered Egypt.  This would further support a 13th dynasty Exodus.

Also supporting a 13th dynasty exodus is the prolific use of mudbricks in the 12th dynasty and the finding of a slave village at Kahun that was rapidly evacuated in the 13th dynasty when Neferhotep I was ruling (as evidenced by scarabs found by Petrie).   Amenemhet III has the credentials to be the pharaoh of Moses birth and the pharaoh that Moses fled from.  Sobeknefru has the credentials to be Moses foster mother and Amenemhet IV has the credentials to be Moses himself!

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The Exodus – Wyatt Archaeological Research

Wyatt believed Joseph was Imhotep but placed Moses in the 18th dynasty because the chariot wheels he found at the bottom of the Red Sea were thought to date from the 18th dynasty.

There is no evidence for a massive exodus of slaves in the 18th dynasty.

There is a lot of evidence to suggest that the Israelites were enslaved during the 12th dynasty.  Moses was born during the co-regency of Sesostris III and Amenemhet III in 1526BC.  Moses fled from Amenemhet III at the age of 40 after showing his loyalty to the Hebrews.    Moses remained in Exile in Midian for 40 yrs.  When he was 80 years old, Moses returned to confront a different pharaoh (Neferhotep I of the 13th dynasty).  He lead the Israelites out of Egypt in the 13th dynasty in 1446BC.  Pilars were left by Solomon to mark the site of the Red Sea crossing which occurred 480 years before Solomon began building the temple.

Wyatt found these pillars in 1978 and went on to find chariot wheels in the Red  Sea at this point.  Unfortunately, experts insisted that the chariot wheels could not have been from the 12th dynasty and sent Wyatt on a wild goose chase looking for evidence of the Israelites in the 18th dynasty.  There is, however, no evidence for the Israelite slaves and a mass exodus in the 18th dynasty.

The Hyksos exodus at the end of the second intermediate period was not the Israelite Exodus either.  The Hyksos were rulers of Egypt.  The  Hyksos were foreigners to Egypt who were able invade and rule over Lower Egypt after Egypt had been devastated by the Israelite Exodus in the 13th dynasty when Neferhotep was the Pharaoh.  The Hyksos ruled Egypt for some 400yrs (Egypt’s second intermediate period).  Eventually, the family of Ahmoses based in Thebes (Upper Egypt in the 17th dynasty) contemporary with the Hyksos 15-16th dynasties in Lower Egypt, lead a rebellion against the Hyksos and successfully chased the Hyksos out of Egypt.  The Hyksos (Amelekites) headed towards Israel where they had encounters with King Saul and David.  The prophet Samuel instructed Saul to wipe them out but Saul spared their king Agag (Apopi II) and brought him to Samuel.  Samuel put Agag to death.  David had a few encounters with the Hyksos (Amalekites) too.  The Amelekites plundered David’s camp and abducted his wives and children.  David managed to catch up with them and wipe them out and get his family back.  Ironically, it was an Amelakite who slew King Saul after he had been fatally wounded.

In summary, Wyatt seems to have been right about Imhotep being Joseph and did discover the route of the Exodus, the site of the Red Sea crossing and the true or biblical Mt Sinai in Arabia.  Unfortunately, the Chariot wheels that he found at the bottom of the Red Sea were erroneously dated to the 18th dynasty which lead him on a wild goose chase looking for Moses in the 18th dynasty.  He, nevertheless, made some critical discoveries which have helped to reconstruct  history and reconcile it with the Bible.

Israel’s Sojourn in Egypt coincides with the Pyramid age. The Israelites had a profound effect on Egyptian History.

Djoser Pyramid Complex at Saqqara, Egypt. Note the large man made holes in the ground near the Step Pyramid that were used to store grain. They were most likely made by Joseph, the designer of the Step Pyramid, also known as Imhotep.

If it is true that Joseph and Imhotep were the same person, then the first pyramid (the Step Pyramid in Saqqara) was designed by an Israelite at the beginning of Israel’s Sojourn in Egypt. What’s more, if the last of the great pyramids (those of the 12th dynasty) were constructed with a core made from mudbricks which were made by Israelite slave labour, then the Israelites were in Egypt while all of the great pyramids were being constructed. After the Israelites departed from Egypt at the end of the 13th dynasty, lead by Moses, there were not enough slaves left in Egypt to construct pyramids any more. The pyramid age coincides with Israel’s sojourn in Egypt. The pyramids were, therefore, constructed over a period of around 400 years.

The Black Pyramid of Amenemhet III. The inner core made of mud bricks is exposed. Josephus records that the Israelite slaves were given the task of building the Pyramids. The Pyramids of the 12th dynasty had an inner core that was made of mud bricks.

Egypt’s borders, wealth and power reached it’s peak in the 12th dynasty under Sesostris III and his son Amenemhet III but as they had no successors, the Middle Kingdom started to fall apart when they died. Moses, an Israelite baby, was adopted by the Princess Sobekneferu and groomed to be the next Pharaoh (Amenemhet IV). Amenemhet IV did in fact co-reign with Amenemhet III for a period of 9 yrs. After killing an Egyptian, Amenemhet IV (Moses) had to flee to Midian at the age of 40 years. As a result of his exile to Midian, there was suddenly no successor for Amenemhet III. Sobekneferu (Amenemhet III’s daughter) had to take over the reigns when Amenemhet III died. She only lived for another 4 yrs and when she died, the 12th dynasty ended, Egypt fell into turmoil and became politically unstable. There was a quick succession of Pharaohs in the 13th dynasty until Neferhotep who was the Pharaoh who was ruling when Moses (Amenemhet IV) returned from exile in Midian. After a series of ten plagues that were inflicted on Egypt, Neferhotep let Moses take the Israelities into the desert. When they did not return, he pursued them with his army. The Israelites were able to cross the red sea at the Gulf of Aqaba but Neferhotep and his army drowned when they tried to follow.

Moses and the Israelites Crossed the Red Sea at Nuweiba in the Gulf of Aqaba in 1446BC.

Not only did Egypt lose its slave labour force, it lost it’s monarch, it’s entire army and it’s transportation system. It was a massive defeat and not something that Egyptian historians would want to memorialize.

When the Israelites left Egypt, Pharaoh and his son died and all the Egyptian army drowned in the Red Sea taking all of Egypts chariots with them. Egypt was then thrown into turmoil. Thy Hyksos were able to take power and Egypts second intermediate period followed (until the Hyksos were finally defeated in the 18th dynasty).

The Israelites, therefore, had a profound influence on Egypt having designed the first pyramid (in the third dynasty) and having provided slave labour for various public works which included making mudbricks for the construction of the last of the great pyramids (those of the 12th dynasty). The country was destabilised when Moses (Amenemhet IV) went into exile as there was nobody to continue the 12th dynasty. Egypt suffered massive losses as a result of the Exodus 40 years later (1446BC) and as a result became vulnerable to invasion. The Hyksos took over and ruled Egypt for the next 400 yrs (the second intermediate period).

A pair of Pilars – left by Solomon to mark the Site of the Red Sea Crossing – Found by Wyatt in 1978

Discovered by Ronn Wyatt in 1978. A pair of pillars on the Egyptian side (Nuweiba) and the Saudi side of the the Gulf of Aqaba - The Red Sea. The one on the Egyptian side had fallen over and was in the sea. It's inscriptions had worn off. The one on the Saudi side was inscribed with the words: Yahweh, Pharaoh, Mizraim, Moses, Death, Water, Solomon, Edom. The Saudi pillar has been removed by the Saudi's but the one on the Nuweiba side is still standing and can be visited. Wyatt also found 4, 6 and 8 spoked chariot wheels covered with coral strewn across the bottom of the Red Sea at this point.

Amenemhet IV – Moses !!

Amenemhet IV may have been Moses. Moses was raise in Pharaoh’s household until the age of 40 when he had to flee to Midian.

Moses was brought up as Egyptian Royalty for the first 40 years of his life. After that, he fled to Midian and stayed there for 40 years. When he was 80 years old, he returned to Egypt to confront a different Pharaoh with the message that God had given him.
Amenemhet IV co-reigned with Amenemhet III for 9 years and then suddenly disappeared. Sobeknefru, the sister or daughter of Amenemhet III, was childless and seems to have adopted Amenemhet IV (Moses). As he disappeared, Sobeknefru had to become the Queen (Pharaoh) when her brother or father, Amenemhet III died. She reigned for almost 4 years and then she died. She had no heir to inherit the throne and so the 12th dynasty ended. Egypt became destabilized and a number of pharaohs followed in quick succession until Neferhotep of the 13th dynasty. Neferhotep was the Pharaoh when Moses returned to Egypt at the age of 80. Neferhotep and his army, with over 600 chariots, chased the Israelites when they did not return form a gathering in the desert to worship their God. When they got to the Nuweiba, the Israelites were able to cross the Red Sea but when Pharaoh and his army tried to follow, they all drowned. Neferhotep’s brother had to take over the throne. He did not last long as he was easy pickings for the Hyksos without the Egyptian army and their chariots to help him.

The Birth and Identity of Moses in the 12th Dynasty

Moses was born in the 12th dynasty of Egypt. The Israelites were forced to make mud bricks by the pharaohs of this dynasty. Pyramids of the 12th dynasty had an inner core made of mudbricks with a limestone veneer. As limestone was becoming scarce, the Pharaohs were forced to use mudbricks to construct the core of the pyramids of the 12th dynasty and limestone was used only for the outer surface. A large labour force was required to make mud bricks. The Jews had grown to number over 2 million by the 12th dynasty. They were housed in Kahun – a semetic workers village close to Lahun, Dashur and Hawara where the 12th dynasty mud brick pyramids can be found. Petri excavated Kahun in 1889 and found evidence that it was occupied from the early 12th dynasty to the 13th dynasty by foreign Semetic slaves. Scarabs with the names of pharaohs that were found in the town indicate that it was built during the time of Sesostris II and occupied up until the 13th dynasty. Amenemhet III, the son of Sesostris III is most likely the Pharaoh who ordered that the Hebrew children be killed at birth by the midwives. Sobeknefru, his daughter appears to have adopted Moses after finding him amongst the reeds of the Nile in a basket. Moses would have become the next Pharaoh (Amenemhet IV). Moses may have even co-reigned with Amenemhet III for 9 years before he had to flee to Midian after killing an Egptian. Sobekneferu became the Pharaoh when Amenemhet died. Sobeknefru reigned almost 4 yrs before she died and so ended the 12th dynasty. A number of pharaohs followed in quick succession until Neferhotep in the 13th dynasty. Neferhotep was the Pharaoh who Moses confronted when he returned to Egypt 40 yrs after fleeing to Midian. Moses then lead the Israelites (numbering around 2 million) out of Egypt, thru the Red Sea into Arabia where they received the Law at Mt Sinai (Jabel Laws).