Historians have erroneously credited the Hyksos with the introduction of the horse drawn chariot to Egypt.

The Bible records that Joseph was given a chariot to travel through Egypt.300px-Lawrence_Alma-Tadema_The_Finding_of_Moses

If Joseph and Imhotep were the same person, this would mean that chariots existed in Egypt as early as the third dynasty.

In the third dynasty, only high officials like the pharaoh and his chancellor / sage / vizier were afforded a chariot to travel in.

Chariots in the 3rd dynasty were not horse drawn, they were carried by a procession of servants.

The Hebrew word (merkabah) in the Bible can be translated as ‘chariot’ or ‘riding seat’.  It does not distinguish between a vehicle that is horse drawn or a vehicle that is carried.

The enigma of chariots in the third dynasty is, therefore, easily explained.

thut3_chariotHorse drawn chariots were used for military purposes and were not introduced until the 12th dynasty.   Most of the chariots of the 12 & 13th dynasty were lost in the Red Sea at the time of the Exodus and paintings depicting horse drawn chariots in the 12th dynasty would not have survived.

It is hardly surprising then that there are no findings of horse draw chariots before the 15th dynasty unless, of course, one accepts that the chariot wheels found in the Red Sea by Wyatt in 1978 were from the 12th and 13th dynasty.

Chariot wheels found in the Red Sea predate the Exodus. Chariots that were not destroyed in the Red Sea post date the Exodus.


The oldest well preserved horse drawn chariots that have been discovered by archaeologists date back to the Hyksos period.  Rather than suggest that the Hyksos introduced chariots to Egypt it would seem more likely that the Exodus immediately preceded the arrival of the Hyksos.

Evidence of Israel in Egypt

Sometimes we miss the obvious

The pyramids of the 12th dynasty had an inner core that was made of mudbricks.  They had an outer veneer of  limestone.  Over the years, the outer veneer has fallen away or been stolen exposing the inner core made of mudbricks resulting in considerable erosion.

Moses was raised as an Egyptian prince yet retained his Hebrew identity.

Moses was raised in pharaoh’s household and was probably groomed to be the next Pharaoh (Amenemhat IV). This may be what he looked like.

This may be a statue of Amenemhet IV

Amenemhet IV was the adopted son of Sobeknefru who was the last Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty

He never got to rule Egypt – he is a bit of an enigma

Many historians and theologians believe that he was Moses of the Bible

Moses was adopted by the Princess Sobeknefru and was raised as an Egyptian in Pharaoh’s household up until the age of 40. He identified with the Hebrew people even though he was raised as an Egyptian. He had to flee to Midian after killing an Egyptian. He returned to Egypt 40 years later when Neferhotep of the 13th dynasty was ruling. God told Moses to tell Pharaoh to “Let My People go” but Pharaoh did not listen. God inflict several plagues upon Egypt and eventually, Neferhotep let Moses take the Israelites into the desert. As they did not come back, Neferhotep pursued them with his army. The Hebrews were able to cross the Red Sea at the Gulf of Aquaba – Nuweiba Beach to be precise. (We know the location because Solomon left pilars to mark the site of the Red Sea Crossing and many artifacts have been recovered from the bottom of the Red Sea at this point. Mount Sinai in Arabia is not far from the crossing site.) When Pharaoh and his army tried to follow, they drowned. After the Exodus through the Red Sea, Moses received the Law – the Ten Commandments – on Mount Sinai. Moses lived in the Wilderness for another 40 years (until the age of 120). He never got to enter the promised land.

Moses was raised as an Egyptian prince yet retained his Hebrew identity.

The statue of the young man in the picture above is Amenemhet II.
Moses was raised in pharaoh's household and was probably groomed to be the next Pharaoh (Amenemhat IV). There are not many statues of Amenemhet IV.

The Red Sea Crossing

Revealing God’s Treasure – Red Sea Crossing